Ambiguous。 Ambiguous

What does ambiguous mean? definition and meaning

ambiguous

I broke the vase. " What is the difference between ambiguous and ambivalent? Bittner 2007, Jacobson 1999. However, the opposite can also be true — an opponent can turn a positive statement into a bad one if the speaker uses ambiguity intentionally or not. If the ambiguity is obvious it is called "patent," and if there is a hidden ambiguity it is called "latent. John and Jane moved a piano. [rho]. The Stoics on Ambiguity. Chomsky, Noam, 2000. Languages composed from many diverse sources contain much ambiguity and inconsistency. Wittgenstein, Ludwig 1999. Examples of such underestablished functions:• The sentence "We saw her duck" is also syntactically ambiguous. Studying ambiguity and how we resolve it can give us insight into both thought and interpretation. New Horizons in the Study of Language and Mind, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2001 Physicians could manipulate reimbursement rules to help their patients obtain coverage for care that the physicians perceive to be necessary, for example, through ambiguous documentation or by exaggerating the severity of patients' conditions. Many Christians and Jews endorse Rudolf Otto's description of the sacred as 'mysterium tremendum et fascinans', the awe-inspiring mystery which fascinates humans. Thus, the description of some of the ambiguities as syntactic or structural rather than semantic can be somewhat controversial. However, for and , this notation conventionally means exponentiation of the result of function application. "And do you see its long nose and chin? This may just go to show how hard it is to dis prove a claim to ambiguity using the tests. See Davidson 1967, Gillon 1990, and Saka 2007 Ch. The accent is on the second syllable, "big," which you can remember since something that's ambiguous can lead to big misunderstandings. If the parties disagree and the ambiguous provisions are material, no contract is formed because of lack of mutual assent. — The uncensored version restores the original shot, making the video's ending less ambiguous. Consider:• The devious politician hopes that each constituent will interpret the statement in the most desirable way, and think the politician supports everyone's opinion. The opposite of such ambiguous images are. D Thesis, Department of Linguistics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; published, New York: Garland Publishing, 1980. 1 Lexical Ambiguity The lexicon contains entries that are homophonous, or even co-spelled, but differ in meanings and even syntactic categories. Donnellan writes: It does not seem possible to say categorically of a definite description in a particular sentence that it is a referring expression of course, one could say this if he meant that it might be used to refer. - "The Sick Rose," Blake leaves this poem open to a wealth of varying opinions regarding the meaning of "rose," "sick," "worm," and "bed of crimson joy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Together, let's explore a few examples of ambiguity. The bottom line is that in clear cases, the tests work great. Thomason ed. First, a bookkeeping issue: should we relegate lexical ambiguity to the lexicon two non-identical entries for ambiguous terms or to semantic interpretation one lexical entry, two or more meanings? Bezuidenhout, Anne, 2002. Nevertheless, we can make some progress. For example, a politician might say, "I oppose taxes which hinder economic growth", an example of a glittering generality. Ambiguity is of interest to philosophers for a variety of reasons, some of which we will look at below. Ambiguity is a funny thing. The law is sensitive to this and makes certain division between ambiguities. One final note: even in the domain of scopal ambiguities, there are controversies about whether to treat these apparent ambiguities as ambiguities. Reprinted in Portner and Partee eds. Within that story arc lies the opportunity to be a bit ambiguous while setting the stage for the conclusion. One can be in therapy, in Florida, in the Mafia, in the yearbook…but it seems like a joke to say that one is in therapy and the Mafia. The semantics is carefully rigged so as not to make a truth-conditional difference; but there is ambiguity nonetheless in what names literally express. Kripke 1977, p. Donnellan, p. The order of operations may depend on the context. Wynia et al. ———, 1960. involves referring to one entity by the name of a different but closely related entity for example, using "wheels" to refer to a car, or "Wall Street" to refer to the stock exchanges located on that street or even the entire US financial sector. Fiengo, Robert and Robert May, 1994. Frequently Asked Questions About ambiguous How is the word ambiguous different from other adjectives like it? Following Ernest Becker, he argues that the desire to 'authoritatively disambiguate' the world and existence has led to numerous ideologies and historical events such as genocide. You know a Caterpillar has got quantities of legs: you can see more of them, further down. , 1950. Several still do not have established notations. When language is capable of being understood in more than one way by a reasonable person, ambiguity exists. Many terms are ambiguous. Partee, Oxford: Blackwell, 2004, 203—230. Sophistical Refutations bk. 13 and 14 seem to be ambiguous between a negation that scopes over the sentence as a whole and one that scopes under the determiner phrase and over the predicate though see Strawson 1950. Baker, Mark, 1997. If no such language is found, once again this is evidence that a unitary account of the word or phrase in question should be sought. Behind that door, there's either a tiger or another woman. The habitual reading describing how John favored utensil for eating breakfast vs. 1, 1. moral precepts with equivocal phrasing In what contexts can obscure take the place of ambiguous? Similarly, a phrase can be ambiguous between an adjunct and an argument:• Logical Form: Its Structure and Derivation, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. An ambiguous phrase is one that is not easy to understand, and often could be interpreted different ways. It is tempting to treat these as ambiguities involving the modal term. Kent Bach 1982 explores the intriguing case of:• Such ambiguity is generally resolved according to the context. 1 M where M is ambiguously 1,000,000 or 1,048,576 is less uncertain than the engineering value 1. An exception to this could include a politician whose "" and are necessary to gain support from multiple with conflicting desires from their candidate of choice. sup. For example, Atlas 1989 argues that the acceptability of the following suggest that negation does not interact scopally with descriptions in the ways we have come to expect:• Mason, David; Allen, Bem P. In speech, a fallacy could form the foundation for a great debate. [rho]. And her strength was gone. One traditional carving is that ambiguity in words is a matter of two lexical entries that correspond to the same word and polysemy a single lexeme that has multiple meanings. Philosophers concerned with the relation between language and thought, particularly those who thought there was a language in which we think, concerned themselves with whether the language in which we think could contain ambiguous phrases. There is no guarantee that unambiguous utterances will result in full univocal clear understanding either. Carlson, Greg N. In such cases, extrinsic or may be admitted to explain what was meant or to identify the property referred to in the writing. A drafter of a document should not benefit at the expense of an innocent party because the drafter was careless in drafting the agreement. 6 for an interesting account of the problem regarding representing ambiguity. AMBIGUITY, contracts, construction. Lexical ambiguity• The various ways to apply and can also create ambiguity "unlockable" can mean "capable of being unlocked" or "impossible to lock". Williams, Edwin, 1977. an injured person verbally asking for help illicit more consistent intervention and assistance. The classic case is:• i], and [[omega]. The test is limited in one way. The lexicon is highly productive and easily extended. sup. This general moral seems right. Elsevier Science. In writing, the sentence can be rewritten to reduce possible misinterpretation, either by adding a comma after "taxes" to convey the first sense or by changing "which" to "that" to convey the second sense or by rewriting it in other ways. Others, however, have been content to posit ambiguities in type for one and the same expression. This claim, however, is somewhat controversial. sup. Kripke, Saul, 1977. This test is not especially reliable, especially with respect to differentiating sense generality from ambiguity. 3 The Analytic-Synthetic Distinction One long-standing issue about ambiguity is that it assumes a difference between something like sense and reference. Its meaning is clear. Dover Publications 1966 , p 27. Writing Is a Craft Writing is, indeed, a craft. It is not the use of peculiar words or of common words used in a peculiar sense. For the notion of, and theoretic results about, syntactic ambiguity in artificial, such as computer , see. We see a lot of this in and other forms of wordplay. Fallacy Ambiguity also borders on another rhetorical device:. Dunbar, George, 2001. Others may think he opposes only those taxes that he believes will hinder economic growth. 575; Sudg. If atomism is right, there is good reason to think that nearly all the lexicon fails to submit to any interesting analyses in terms of necessary and sufficient conditions see Fodor 1998. But they really are two of its legs. Vide generally, Bac. Can you pass the salt? Every man who read a book by Chomsky is happy. Maria solved the problem too. What is the noun form of ambiguous? Authors, poets, lyricists and the like, on the other hand, have often found ambiguity to be an extremely powerful tool. 228. , Stockton ends this story with a ton of ambiguity. Spade, P. I saw someone on the hill with a telescope. This could mean one actually spoke to the apothecary or went to the apothecary. the episodic reading describing a particular breakfast John ate is evident in 32. Christianity and Judaism [ ] and employ the concept of paradox synonymously with 'ambiguity'. Ambiguity is an effective to engage a hearer in conversation and to move it to a level of deeper import. If logic is to be free of issues that would complicate telling valid from non-valid arguments by form, detecting ambiguity is essential to logical representation of natural language arguments. However, upon learning that there is a car by the same name made by Volkswagen, it will be much less clear to me that I know what she bought. Sam and Jess brokered deals. Fodor, Jerry, 1998. Lexical Semantics, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. James wants to marry an overweight man and Jane does too. Some will think he opposes taxes in general because they hinder economic growth. sub. " There are two elemental forms in speech and writing. There are two sorts of ambiguities of words, ambiguitas latens and ambiguitas patens. Plural Predication. All that glitters is not gold. In the semantics literature, views on which modalities are treated indexically rather than as cases of ambiguity pretty much dominate all contemporary thinking, as we shall see in section 6. In many cases our best theory predicts an ambiguity despite the fact that no reasonable person would detect any meaning other than the clearly intended one. arises when a sentence can have two or more different meanings because of the structure of the sentence—its syntax. If the line between these two is blurry, there will very likely be cases in which the line between ambiguity and sense-generality is blurry as well and not just epistemologically. See our and to learn more about the use of data and your rights. Reprinted in Portner and Partee eds. "Meaning" here refers to whatever should be captured by a good dictionary. The colours are light. Sag, Ivan, 1976. [rho]. Riches Philadelphia: Westminster, 1971 , 135 n. "The Bystander Effect as a Function of Ambiguity and Emergency Character". To explore these, however, we will need to adopt some terminology to make clear what sorts of phenomena we are looking at. In writing, perhaps a main character will be working out an error in their - or someone else's - judgment. He would never understand. 8; and lib. Recanati, Francois, 1989. The present king of France is not bald. see McKay 2006. One could say "I bought herbs from the apothecary". One important question regarding ambiguity is how we ought to represent ambiguities. [rho]. Using conjunction reduction on 45 and 46 we get:• The multiplicity of interpretation in these modals is pretty clear. We thus have some reason to doubt that the right treatment of 70 has much to do with the phenomenon of scope. Please help by. " Carroll, Lewis. — German officials, after an initial delay, received a more ambiguous update. Lexical ambiguity can be addressed by algorithmic methods that automatically associate the appropriate meaning with a word in context, a task referred to as. If multiple interpretations are impossible, there is evidence of ambiguity. As mentioned above, conjunction reduction has been used to argue that collective-distributive ambiguities are due to an ambiguity in the subject phrase. , 1996. Carlson, Greg N. , in the face of death. Perhaps we could say that the sentence is pragmatically ambiguous …. For example:• muttered dark hints of revenge When is it sensible to use enigmatic instead of ambiguous? , 2002, 334—356. Salinger is assuming the reader will understand "they" refers to the medical professionals in the rehab center and "here" refers to the center itself. This may be the result of scope, movement or binding, and the level at which the ambiguity is localized can involve full sentences or phrases. 100: 145—146. Have you ever been accused of? The phenomenon is quite wide-spread, however See Hobbs 1985. 3 Contradiction Tests Another way to test for ambiguity is to test for lack of contradiction in sentences that look to be contradictory. However, ambiguity need not be characterized by borderline cases nor by sorites-series susceptibility. Concepts: Where Cognitive Science Went Wrong, Oxford: Oxford University Press. This is also known as semantic ambiguity. How to Think About Meaning. Aristotle, On Sophistical Refutations, Pickard-Cambridge trans. Fields. Turner ed. Groucho Marx's classic joke depends on a grammatical ambiguity for its humor, for example: "Last night I shot an elephant in my pajamas. Newspaper headlines can be unintentionally funny when they're ambiguous. He got drunk and fired or divorced. Pynchon, Thomas, 2006, Against the Day, Penguin Press. In the law of contracts, ambiguity means more than that the language has more than one meaning upon which reasonable persons could differ. In most , the operations of division and multiplication have equal priority and are executed from left to right. - The Awakening, This is a good example of syntactic ambiguity. If anything, one might think that these views treat vagueness as a sort of polysemy. Songs and poetry often rely on ambiguous words for artistic effect, as in the song title "Don't It Make My Brown Eyes Blue" where "blue" can refer to the color, or to sadness. On the first reading, the world-quantifier takes wide scope. But the relevant notion of multiple expression seem different from paradigmatic ambiguity in that the semantic values are very closely aligned.。 。 。 。 。 。 。

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Ambiguity legal definition of ambiguity

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Ambiguous Synonyms, Ambiguous Antonyms

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Examples of Ambiguity

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Ambiguity

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Ambiguity legal definition of ambiguity

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